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The Rare Correct Use of the Word "Hopefully"

Written by TJ Dawe

In reading Tom Perrotta's novel , I came across this sentence, in which a woman offers a positive comment about after a woman in her book club attacks it:

"'There's a lot of good descriptive writing,' she said hopefully."

"Hopefully" is one of those words that's almost never used correctly. Most of the time it's employed to mean "It is to be hoped," as in "Hopefully it won't rain tomorrow." But it's an adverb. It should modify a verb. She sighed hopefully. He looked hopefully into the distance.

Bill Bryson points out in that "those writers who scrupulously avoid hopefully do not hesitate to use at least a dozen other words - 'apparently', 'presumably', 'happily', 'sadly', 'mercifully', 'thankfully' and many others - in precisely the same way." But he goes on to deplore the word's misuse for its ambiguity and lameness.

Dictionary.com gives "it is to be hoped" as the second definition. To borrow a rebuttal from George Carlin on a similar point - there's a reason it's second:

Language evolves, and I have no problem with that. Bryson wrote the book specifically about how the English language evolved in the United States, and it's a vivid, informative and entertaining read that helps boost appreciation for how valuable it is that words change in meaning and function over time and in different circumstances. With English having no regulatory body, like French or Spanish, these changes happen organically, and against the indignant but ultimately faint and ineffectual protests of purists and pedants.

A few years ago a friend used the word "whence" in an email, without prefacing it with "from" and defended that usage before I had a chance to point out the error. "Whence," it turns out, means "from." "From whence" is redundant . Since finding that out I've read "whence" on its own in at least a dozen books, many of them novels. It must have been there all the years I thought the expression "from whence" was correct. Why hadn't I noticed it? (Maybe it was internally altered by the same auto-correct function the brain has that can let your eyes pass over a simple error in your own writing dozens of times without picking it up)(have you spotted one in this article yet?) And how correct is it when it's only used correctly by the tiniest minority - and pretty much only when written, not spoken?

"Hopefully" is used so frequently and almost universally in its newer and technically incorrect meaning that to read it or hear it used correctly has become worth noting. I still strive to use it properly, even though no one notices or cares. Same with "whence." And I do commonly take grammatical liberties by using fragments as full sentences. For effect. And rhythm. Learned that from JP Donleavy . But I'll be damned if I stop being scrupulous enough to differentiate "there," "their" and "they're," or start pluralizing with an apostrophe s. And I'll shoot myself in the head before I start trying to get across that I'm kidding by ending a sentence with an emoticon.

Maybe there are a couple of language buffs out there who'll appreciate it, I conclude hopefully.

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Hopefully, you're not really that big of a word snob ;)

Uses Ionicons from React Native Vector Icons

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The layout system is an essential concept that needs to be mastered in order to create great layouts and UIs. React Native uses Flexbox to create the layouts, which is great when we need to accommodate our components and views in different screen sizes or even different devices. Flexbox is awesome but it could be tiresome for newbies. Not being very good at Flexbox? Here comes the Easy Grid of NativeBase , a wrapper of Flexbox. The layout system in NativeBase is very powerful and flexible. No more worries about props of Flexbox such as alignItems , flexDirection , justifyContent , margin , padding , position , width etc. You can create any layout with all the available options that we have. In order to build custom layouts and components, understanding how layout works in NativeBase is not as hard as Flexbox. Flexbox makes it look like percentages, however what actually is happening is just ratios. On the easier part, ratios are easier to represent than percentage / decimals. For this reason, the Easy Grid takes in ratios in place of percentage. Performance wise, Easy Grid is noteworthy and works as fine as Flexbox, not much of calculation.

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Note: If you're using <Row /> inside a <ScrollView /> , the height of the component would be flexible according to the content, though you can always apply the height styling.

NativeBase <Content> component uses <ScrollView> . This is required by <Col> and <Row> elements of Easy-Grid to have a defined height. Replacing Component for Grid, Col, Row: React Native

A base component for specifying lists of information. List must contain one or more list elements. Props provide configurability for several features. Provides a number of attributes that follow styling and interaction guidelines for each platform, so that they are intuitive for users to interact with.

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Replacing Component

Note: List is deprecated. Use of List for dynamic list generation is discouraged. Use Flatlist instead.

The List Divider component creates a list separator, which can be used for grouping list items. To create a divider for any child element of the list, include itemDivider prop with ListItem component. The List Divider of NativeBase comes with default style which is easily customisable.

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The List Header component creates a list header, which can be used for grouping list items. To create a header for any child element of the list, include itemHeader prop with ListItem component. The List Header of NativeBase comes with default style which is easily customisable.

In practice, when a cause area receives a lot of funding, new marginal funding is likely to be less effective than the average dollar spent on that cause, because good opportunities will already be taken and what remains will be projects that were previously passed over as less efficient uses of funding. When a cause area receives a small amount of funding, new marginal funding may be at least as efficient as the average dollar spent on the cause, if it is still being used for the most efficient projects or if it allows advocates to take on projects which will be efficient but which can only be done at larger scales.

For instance, PAWS Chicago provides information on the size of their spay/neuter and adoption programs over many years. While their adoption program has been growing steadily, the spay/neuter program has been fairly consistent in size since around 2011. PAWS writes thoughtfully about their comprehensive model for reducing shelter euthanasia in Chicago and acknowledges the high returns to spay/neuter surgeries, so we believe the reason that program is now so consistent in size is serving most of the need in their area. —PAWS Chicago. PAWS Chicago’s Progression .

We estimate that our Top Charities help many more animals per donation than typical companion animal shelters do (see ), and all of them have room for more funding to expand their programs. We would also expect other farm animal advocacy groups to be more similar in effectiveness to our top charities than to animal shelters, since much of the difference in effectiveness is due to the type of programs organizations run, rather than to unique organizational characteristics

For instance, rabies and overpopulation are more common problems for dogs in India than in the U.S. Vaccination and spay/neuter programs there need funding more than similar programs in the U.S. —Help Animals India. Frequently Asked Questions .

For a similar approach to a variety of causes mostly outside ACE’s scope, see the following post from 80,000 Hours:—Todd, B. (January 21, 2014). AllhqFashion Womens Solid HighHeels Round Closed Toe PU PullOn Boots Brown EXIQ7
80,000 Hours.

Above, we estimated that there are fewer than a billion companion animals in distress, compared to over 30 billion farmed animals and at least 10 trillion wild animals. See the section on Importance .

“For every one dog or cat euthanized in a shelter, about 2600 farmed animals are confined and slaughtered. … As of 2013, Charity Navigator listed 80 major U.S. animal shelters with budgets over $3.5 million, together endowed with $835 million. By contrast, 9 major U.S. farm animal outreach organizations together controlled just $16 million.” —ACE. Number of Animals Vs. Amount of Donations .

Of course, caring for individual animals is in some sense not routine, as each animal may have different problems and needs. Still, companion animal care is well-developed in many areas, with local organizations caring for animals in similar ways in many areas. In fact, such organizations make up a large part of the animal charity sector overall. “Because most of the smaller organizations reviewed on Charity Navigator were local shelter-based organizations, we expect that not reviewing the local charities with budgets smaller than $3.5 million led to an underestimate of how much funding overall was directed towards shelters.” —ACE. Number of Animals Vs. Amount of Donations .

The death of a respected elder

Mohammednur was a widely-recognised individual in Eritrea. He was a key figure in organising the 1960s pro-independence student demonstrations in which Afwerki participated, and he was once arrested for his active role in Eritrea’s armed struggle.

His younger brother, Taha Mohammednur, was a co-founder of the Eritrea Liberation Front (ELF), the rebel group that started the war of independence. The current ruling party, the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), originated as a splinter of the ELF. Taha also died in custody , in 2008. He had served in several senior government posts after Eritrea’s liberation before he was arrested in 2005 alongside several other prominent figures on unspecified charges.

The outpouring of grief and anger following Mohammednur’s death last week can partly be explained by his influence and reputation. The elder’s decades-long service and dedication to his community and country earned him a deep respect. It was for this that he was made president of Al Diaa Islamic School despite his advanced years.

Sometimes when prominent individuals have been arbitrarily arrested in Eritrea, they have been quietly dismissed as possible accomplices or quickly forgotten by the wider community. But this was not the case with Mohammednur. After his detention, sheikhs at Al Khulafa Al Rashiudin, Asmara’s biggest mosque, reportedly took the bold step of using their Friday sermons to urge adherents to stand by him. Sources say that since the protest in October, most of the capital’s mosques have been subjected to tight security. It is even believed President Afwerki himself followed Mohammednur’s case closely and was personally behind the order of the prisoner’s release in December.

Security forces also seemed well aware of the possible flare up the elder’s death might cause. They allegedly delayed the release of his body for a day in order to avoid it coinciding with Friday prayers, when which large numbers of people gather. However, that did not stop mourners mobilising a day later for Mohammednur’s funeral.

That large demonstration of popular frustration was one more sign that the government’s faith in the power of the gun to maintain control and keep the population silent is increasingly being challenged today.

The police on the streets of Asmara are said to be nervous. The same may well be true of officials in the President’s Office following another public expression of dissent in a country where the price of expressing dissent is high. In Eritrea, the free press has been stifled and thousands of political prisoners languish in appalling conditions.

On the one hand, Afwerki’s government may be quietly relieved by the passing of Mohammednur despite the disturbances it inspired. His death means authorities longer have to deal with a man who commanded wide respect, whose age-old credentials as an Eritrean patriot were tough to question, and whose recent open defiance was causing it trouble.

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